Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis – Frontiers in Psychology

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Abstract

Background: Mindfulness as a positive mental health intervention approach has been increasingly applied to address depression in young people. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in the treatment of depression among adolescents and young adults.

Methods: Electronic databases and references in articles were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating MBSR and reporting outcomes for depressive symptoms among young people aged 12 to 25 years were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were conducted by two reviewers independently. Hedges’ g with a 95% confidence interval was calculated to represent intervention effect.

Results: Eighteen RCTs featuring 2,042 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Relative to the control groups (e.g., no treatment, treatment as usual, or active control), MBSR had moderate effects in reducing depressive symptoms at the end of intervention (Hedges’ g = -0.45). No statistically significant effects were found in follow-up (Hedges’ g = -0.24) due to a lack of statistical power. Meta-regression found that the average treatment effect might be moderated by control condition, treatment duration, and participants’ baseline depression.

Conclusion: MBSR had moderate effects in reducing depression in young people at posttest. Future research is needed to assess the follow-up effects of MBSR on depressive symptoms among adolescents and young adults.

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Extremely brief mindfulness interventions for women undergoing breast biopsies: a randomized controlled trial – Breast Cancer Research & Treatment

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Mindfulness-based programs can reduce stress and help practitioners to have positive attitudes in their daily lives. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of brief Mindfulness interventions on quantitative and qualitative stress parameters in patients undergoing imaging-guided breast biopsies.

METHODS:

Eighty-two women undergoing percutaneous imaging-guided breast biopsy were randomized into two groups: MBI group or standard care group. One week before the biopsy procedure, on the waiting room and during the biopsy procedure, the MBI group was exposed to mindfulness techniques and the standard care group received supportive dialogue from the biopsy team. Participants completed questionnaires measuring depression, anxiety and stress, demographics, and medical history, besides evaluating their pain experience through a visual analogue scale for pain and had their systolic and diastolic blood pressure, initial and final temperate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and salivary cortisol measured.

RESULTS:

Participation in the mindfulness intervention group was associated with reduced levels of perceived stress, blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation compared to participation in the standard care group (P values < 0.05). No difference was observed regarding salivary cortisol levels, peripheral temperature, and pain perception between the two studied groups.

CONCLUSION:

Results indicate that an extremely brief mindfulness intervention is a feasible intervention, suggesting that Mindfulness-based programs may be beneficial to reduce discomfort in acutely stressful settings

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Impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with multiple sclerosis at 8 weeks and 12 months: A randomized clinical trial.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Mindfulness training is often used as a therapeutic intervention to manage stress and enhance emotional well-being, yet trials for multiple sclerosis (MS) are limited and few have used an active control.

OBJECTIVE:

Assess the feasibility of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for people with MS and evaluate the efficacy of MBSR compared to an education control.

METHODS:

We conducted a single-blind, randomized trial of MBSR versus education control among 62 adults with MS. Primary outcomes were measures of feasibility. Secondary outcomes included perceived stress, anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain, resilience, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 12 months. Mean scores for secondary outcome measures were compared between groups at each time point and within groups across time by analyses of covariance or paired t-tests, respectively.

RESULTS:

Successful recruitment and retention demonstrated feasibility. Improvements in several secondary outcomes were observed among both MBSR and control groups. However, differences between the groups were not statistically significant at either 8 weeks or 12 months.

CONCLUSION:

Emotional well-being improved with both MBSR and education. Spontaneous improvement cannot be ruled out as an explanation for findings and additional studies that evaluate the impact of mindfulness training to improve emotional health are warranted.

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The Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Emotional Wellbeing and Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – Journal of Diabetes Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention on emotion regulation and glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited for this randomized controlled trial from an outpatient clinic at Imam Hospital in Iran. The intervention group participated in 8 sessions of MBSR, and the control group continued the treatment as usual. Fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were measured as two indices of glycemic control. Overall mental health, depression, and anxiety were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), respectively. All the assessments were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks and 3 months as follow-up.

RESULTS:

In comparison with the control group, the MBSR intervention group showed a significant reduction on all outcome measures including FBS, HbA1C, HARS, and HDRS scores (p < 0/05).

CONCLUSION:

MBSR had a remarkable improvement on emotional wellbeing and glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes.

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Mindfulness for female outpatients with chronic primary headaches: an internet-based bibliotherapy – European Journal of Translational Myology

 

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Abstract

Our aim was to investigate effectiveness of mindfulness by bibliotherapy on disability, distress, perceived pain and mindfulness in women with tension headaches and migraines. Primary headaches have been of great interest to mental health researchers because of the high prevalence, as well as significant disability and distress in the affected people. Despite the promising results of in-person treatment and some limitations that such interventions may cause, patients may be encountered with problems when using health care services.

The present study is a quasi-experimental randomized design with pre-test, post-test, and control group. The study population consisted of 1396 women with migraine headache referring to headache clinic of Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran. Of these, 30 patients (including tboh experimental and control group) were selected by objective sampling method and were randomly assigned to the two groups. The experimental group, in addition to medical treatment as usual, was treated for a period of 8 sessions by Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction Internet-based Bibliotherapy, but the control group used only the medical treatment. The sample had no attritions.

Data were collected by the four scales of (DASS-21), Migraine Disability Assessment Test (MIDAS), McGill’s Short Form Questionnaire (MPQ-SF), and Mindfulness Inventory (MAAS). We used covariance analysis to analyze the findings in the measured scales.

MBSR-IBB treatment had no significant effect on pain sensory dimension (P <0.44), despite improvement of mindfulness (P <0.0001). In contrast, the greatest effect was on the level of disability (P <0.0001).

We observed also a significant improvement in distress (P <0.0001). In conclusion, in spite of the presence of headaches, the mindfulness improved the quality of life and reduced the level of mental distress. In addition, using the Internet-based bibliotherapy method, these services can be used with easier access, lower cost, and more flexibility.

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Intra-individual study of mindfulness: ecological momentary perspective in post-surgical lung cancer patients – Journal of Behavioural Medicine

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Abstract

The period of recovery following a lung-cancer surgery presents unique challenges and psychological demands. The study utilized ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to repeatedly sample mindfulness states in a sample of mindfulness-untrained individuals following hospital discharge. Intra- and inter- individual variability was assessed to examine cancer patients’ natural capacity to exhibit mindfulness states during two weeks of recovery. Fifty nine stage I lung cancer patients (61% women, mean age = 66.1, SD = 7.9) completed EMA twice a day for two weeks. Mean level of mindfulness in the sample was low and equaled .49 (SD = .51) on the 5 point scale, with older participants being less likely to endorse mindful states. Net variability in mindfulness, defined as the person-based standard deviation in momentary scores, equaled .42 (SD = .26), ranging for 0 to 1.3 and indicating very modest variability for most participants. Results of the multi-level variance partitioning model revealed 41.4% of variance in mindfulness scores at the inter-individual, 2.4% on the temporal (i.e., .2% weekly and 2.2% daily), and 56.2% on the momentary levels. Findings indicate that, for cancer patients recovering from surgery, the innate ability to exhibit mindfulness is limited. From the methodological standpoint, consideration of intra-individual variability has implications for conceptualization and design of EMA studies.

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Mindfulness-Based Interventions among Adolescents with Chronic Diseases in Clinical Settings: A Systematic Review.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

We aimed to determine the benefits/efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) implemented among adolescents with chronic diseases in clinical settings.

METHODS:

An electronic search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases was conducted in November 2017 to identify studies in which mindfulness was the primary intervention delivered for adolescents with chronic diseases to improve psychological and physical health.

RESULTS:

Nineteen eligible studies were included in this review. Fifteen studies included adolescents with psychiatric or pain disorders, and four included adolescents with a chronic physical disorders. Psychological outcomes and pain were examined in most studies with effect sizes for MBIs ranging from small to large.

DISCUSSION:

MBI studies conducted in clinical settings mainly engaged adolescents with psychiatric or pain disorders. The effectiveness of MBIs on improving psychological outcomes were inconsistent. Large randomized trials are needed to examine the effectiveness of MBIs and should expand to include adolescents with chronic physical diseases.

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