Relationship Between Mindfulness and Posttraumatic Stress in Women Who Experienced Stillbirth – J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To explore the potential factors that mediate the relationship between mindfulness and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in women who experienced stillbirth.

DESIGN:

A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data before women’s participation in an online mindfulness intervention (i.e., online yoga).

SETTING:

This was a national study, and women participated in their own homes.

PARTICIPANTS:

Women who experienced stillbirth (N = 74) within the past 2 years and resided in the United States.

METHODS:

Women were recruited nationally, primarily through social media. Participants (N = 74) completed baseline assessments (self-report mental and physical health surveys) via a Web-based survey tool. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis of the COPE Inventory subscales to reduce the number of variables before entry into a mediation model. We then tested the mediation effects of sleep quality, self-esteem, resilience, and maladaptive coping on the relationship between mindfulness and PTS symptoms.

RESULTS:

Through the exploratory factor analysis we identified a two-factor solution. The first factor included nine subscales that represented adaptive coping strategies, and the second factor included five subscales that represented maladaptive coping strategies. Results from multiple mediation analysis suggested that mindfulness had a significant inverse relationship to PTS symptoms mediated by sleep quality.

CONCLUSION:

Mindfulness practices may have potential benefits for grieving women after stillbirth. Evidence-based approaches to improve sleep quality also may be important to reduce PTS symptoms in women after stillbirth.

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Improvements in Stress, Affect, and Irritability Following Brief Use of a Mindfulness-based Smartphone App: A Randomized Controlled Trial – Mindfulness (N Y).

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Abstract

Mindfulness training, which involves observing thoughts and feelings without judgment or reaction, has been shown to improve aspects of psychosocial well-being when delivered via in-person training programs such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Less is known about the efficacy of digital training mediums, such as smartphone apps, which are rapidly rising in popularity. In this study, novice meditators were randomly allocated to an introductory mindfulness meditation program or to a psychoeducational audiobook control featuring an introduction to the concepts of mindfulness and meditation. The interventions were delivered via the same mindfulness app, were matched across a range of criteria, and were presented to participants as well-being programs. Affect, irritability, and two distinct components of stress were measured immediately before and after each intervention in a cohort of healthy adults.

While both interventions were effective at reducing stress associated with personal vulnerability, only the mindfulness intervention had a significant positive impact on irritability, affect, and stress resulting from external pressure (between group Cohen’s d = 0.44, 0.47, 0.45, respectively). These results suggest that brief mindfulness training has a beneficial impact on several aspects of psychosocial well-being, and that smartphone apps are an effective delivery medium for mindfulness training.

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The impact of preoperative mindfulness-based stress reduction on postoperative patient-reported pain, disability, quality of life, and prescription opioid use in lumbar spine degenerative disease: a pilot study -World Neurosurg.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Prescription opioid medications negatively affect postoperative outcomes after lumbar spine surgery. Furthermore, opioid-related overdose death rates in the U.S. increased by 200% between 2000 and 2014. Thus, alternatives are imperative. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), a mind-body therapy, has been associated with improved activity and mood in opioid-using chronic pain patients. This study assessed whether preoperative MBSR is an effective adjunct to standard postoperative care in adult patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery for degenerative disease.

METHODS:

The intervention group underwent a preoperative online MBSR course. The comparison group was matched retrospectively in a 1-to-1 ratio by age, sex, type of surgery, and preoperative opioid use. Prescription opioid use during hospital admission and at 30 days postoperatively were compared with preoperative use. Thirty-day postoperative patient-reported outcomes for pain, disability, and quality of life were compared with preoperative patient-reported outcomes. Dose-response effect of mindfulness courses was assessed using Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores.

RESULTS:

In this pilot study, 24 participants were included in each group. The majority of intervention patients (70.83%) completed one session, and the mean MAAS score was 4.28±0.71 during hospital admission. At 30 days, mean VAS-BP was lower in the intervention group (p=0.004) but other patient-reported outcomes did not differ.

CONCLUSIONS:

During hospital admission, no significant dose-response effect of mindfulness techniques was found. At 30 days postoperatively, MBSR use was associated with less back pain. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of preoperative MBSR on postoperative outcomes in lumbar spine surgery for degenerative disease.

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Do workplace-based mindfulness meditation programs improve physiological indices of stress? A systematic review and meta-analysis – J Psychosom Res.

 

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Image: Pexels.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have been related with improved job satisfaction, wellbeing, health, and reduced workplace stress with employees. However, until now, synthesis of the evidence of the effect of MBIs on physiological indices associated with stress and ill-health has been lacking. Therefore the current systematic review aimed to synthesise the literature from employee samples to provide guidance for future investigations in terms of which physiological indicators and biological systems may be most impacted by MBIs.

METHODS:

Electronic databases were searched. Studies that conducted a mindfulness-based program with an employee sample, which targeted workplace stress or work engagement, and measured a physiological outcome were selected for inclusion. Studies using either a between-group or within-group design were included. Nine papers were found to meet the inclusion criteria for our systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

RESULTS:

MBIs were found to be effective in reducing cortisol production, as indicated by lowered high and low diurnal cortisol slopes. However, no changes were found for cortisol awakening response or concentrations for single a.m. and p.m. time-points. MBIs also improved autonomic balance, assessed by heart rate variability coherence measures, but not blood pressure. Sympathetic nervous system reactivity as measured by salivary alpha amylase was also reduced following MBI. While aspects of immune function were also improved following MBIs, specifically, increased antibody response to a viral vaccine and reduced C-reactive protein concentrations, each of these outcomes were only assessed in a single study.

CONCLUSION:

Taken together, the findings suggest that MBIs are a promising avenue for intervention for improving physiological indices of stress. Our findings suggest that changes in daytime cortisol secretion and HRV coherence may be particularly influenced by MBIs. Future studies should aim to assess multiple physiological indices to confirm the current findings and further improve current understanding of which biological systems (and indices within these systems) show responses indicative of reduced stress due to MBI.

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Brief Mindfulness Meditation With Night Nursing Unit Staff: A Qualitative Study – Holist Nurs Pract.

Abstract

Nurses and nursing assistants working at night on an inpatient unit are under signicant stress. Because mindfulness reduces stress and enhances workplace life, this qualitative study explored night shift staff attitudes toward brief group mindfulness practice. For 8 months, 3 times a week, the staff was called together at the nursing station around midnight and led through 2 to 5 minutes of guided mindfulness meditation. Six months after these groups ended, perceptions of this experience were gathered from 5 nurses and 5 nursing assistants via interviews and open-ended questionnaires. Data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis, with themes identied as they emerged from the data. The study findings noted that several participants were slow to recognize the value of the practice, but this shifted so that by the end, all participants felt positively about participating. Most perceived its benet for themselves as well as for others in the following areas: relationship to self and family, ability to focus, teamwork, decreased stress, improved attitude, and increased compassion toward patients. This brief team mindfulness intervention had many benets for participants and patients but took time to achieve staff buy-in. Future research should examine the generalizability of these findings and clarify implementation strategies.

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A Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Mindfulness Meditation for Women Undergoing Stereotactic Breast Biopsy – J Am Coll Radiol.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Stereotactic breast biopsy (SBB) is a common, anxiety-producing procedure. Nonpharmacologic methods to manage acute anxiety are needed.

METHODS:

In this single-blind trial, women were recruited before SBB and randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to a single session of guided mindfulness-based meditation (GM; n = 30), focused breathing (FB; n = 30), or standard care (SC; n = 16). Anxiety and pain were assessed at baseline after a 10-min prebiopsy group-specific activity (GM, FB, or SC), every 4 min during SBB, and after biopsy. Electroencephalographic activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus was collected throughout the study.

RESULTS:

Women in the GM group reported a steeper reduction in anxiety than women in the FB and SC groups (P < .001 for all, Cohen’s d > 0.4 for all). There were no group differences in pain ratings during the biopsy. Women in the GM group experienced increased beta activity during biopsy in the insula (P = .006, Cohen’s d = 1.4) and anterior cingulate cortex (P = .019, Cohen’s d = 1.0) compared with women in the SC group, and there was a trend toward the same effect compared with women in the FB group (P < .10 for both). Women in the GM and FB groups experienced a nonsignificant decrease in delta activity in the precuneus during biopsy compared with those in the SC group (P < .40 for both, Cohen’s d > 0.6 for both), which was associated with a steeper reduction in anxiety during the biopsy (r = 0.51, P < .01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Brief, guided meditation may provide effective anxiety relief during an acute medical procedure and affect neuronal activity in regions associated with attention, self-awareness, and emotion regulation.

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Effects of Mindfulness-Based Psychoeducation on the Internalized Stigmatization Level of Patients With Schizophrenia – Clinical Nursing Research

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of mindfulness-based psychoeducation on internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia. The patients were recruited from the community mental health centers. This quasiexperimental study was conducted using pretests and posttests with a control group. The participants were 69 patients with schizophrenia; 34 were part of the experimental group and 35 were part of the control group. The patients in the experimental group participated 2 days a week for 6 weeks in a total of 12 sessions which were given in the form of face-to-face group training. The difference between the scale mean posttest scores of the patients in the experimental and control groups was found to be statistically significant (p < .05). In the intragroup comparisons, a significant difference was found between the stigma mean scores in the experimental group (p< .05). It was concluded that mindfulness-based psychoeducation was effective in reducing stigma in patients with schizophrenia.

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